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Major fx rates :
1 EUR=1.1986 USD
1 EUR=130.37 JPY
1 EUR=0.8679 GBP
1 USD=108.77 JPY
1 USD=0.9187 CHF
1 GBP=1.381 USD
1 USD=1.2503 CAD
1 USD=1.2898 AUD
1 EUR=1.1011 CHF
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Rates on 16 April 2021

Currency conversion rules
All software on this web site apply all the right rules to convert any currencies.
There are one of the only currency converters to do this, due to the specific conversion rules with the euro.
The calculators use definitive exchange rates of the euro against the 12 national currencies of Euroland.
All official conversion rules between currencies of the Euroland are applied :
Amounts in euro are rounded to 2 digits (22.224 => 22.22, 22.226 => 22.23, 22.225 => 22.23).
To convert an amount from a local currency to another one (ie from German Mark to French Franc), the internal intermediate amount in euros is computed with 3 digits. Amount in currencies are displayed with the right precision (0 or 2 digits).
Conversions from an "out" currency to an "in" currency are made with an intermediate amount in euro to 2 digits.
Conversions from an "out" currency to another "out" currency are made with an intermediate amount in euro with maximal precision.
Amounts can be entered with a comma or dot to separate the decimal part.

For Gold, Silver, platinum and Palladium, rates and amounts are expressed in grams (1 ounce=31.103 g).

This converter complies with the European Union Council Regulation 97/1103

Historical rates of the euro before 1999 and historical rates of XEU before 1979
Before 31/12/1998 the Euro Exchange rates are theoretical ones, use the XEU code to see ECU exchange rates (
with historical currency converter or historical rates page)

These theoretical rates, were computed from weight of each currency in XEU basket. As Great Britain Pound and Greek Drachma were part of the XEU basket but not member of the euro in 1999, there is a little difference between XEU and EUR (up to 2.5 % difference between 1990 and 31/12/1998).
Before 13/03/1979 XEU rates are theoretical ones (computed from DEM, BEF/LUF, DKK, FRF, GBP, IEP, ITL and NLG rates against USD, using weights in ECU basket when it was issued on 13/03/1979).
If you are looking for a currency that you can't find, try historical currency converter, there are more currencies available.
Some Wikipedia pages explain how we did to compute theoretical historical rates of the euro and XEU : in English, in French,

Reference rate
Daily reference rate comes from central banks. It is defined from Monday to Friday, except days off.
Minimum, Average, Maximum, First and Last rates comes from other real time sources.

Historical exchange rates source
Exchange rates are refreshed daily (from monday to friday) and are the official ones published by the European Central Bank.

Some minor exchange rates come from other sources (like African Development Bank, Central Bank of Brazil or other central banks).

Historic rates are official ones, we use European Central Bank exchange rates since May 2000.
Before May 2000, we retrieved exchange rates from Dutch central bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Bank of England, US federal reserve, World Bank, Bank of Japan.

On 1st January 1960, a "new french franc (FRF)" was issued to replace "100 old french franc (FRA)". To avoid useless jump in our historical charts related to French Franc, we introduced code FRA to represent old French Franc. FRA is not a standard ISO code.

Averages and historical volatility
To compute averages in Historical exchange rates or Graph zoom, we don't take into account exchange rates on saturdays, sundays and days off the TARGET calendar (european bank holiday which includes 6 days off per year : 1st of january, easter friday, easter monday, 1st of may, christmas day (25th of december) and boxing day (26th of december)

Historic volatility is standard deviation of the logarithm of changes of exchange rates mutliplied by square root of number of quotes per year (254.66 open days per year).
Sample calculation of historic volatility with Excel spreadsheet

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